Monthly Archives: January 2019

Japanese Narrow Gauge -762mm Lines – Part 1 – The Kurobe Gorge Railway

I hope this will be the first of a short series of posts looking at some of the 762mm lines in Japan. …….

1. The Kurobe Gorge Railway

The Kurobe Gorge Railway (Kurobe Kyōkoku Tetsudō Kabushiki Kaisha), or Kurotetsu  for short, is a private, 762 mm (2 ft 6 innarrow gauge railway company operating the Kurobe Gorge Main Line along the Kurobe River in the Kurobe gorge area of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. The adjacent maps show the  location on the Gorge. It is marked with the red flags which actually pin-point Unazuki Station.To fulfil domestic electricity demand, the Japanese government began surveying the Kurobe River in 1909 for the Kurobe HEP Plant Project. In 1923, the Japanese government began building a 762mm narrow-gauged railway in Unazuki to transport equipment and personnel to the site. Later on by 1926, the 11.8km long “Kurobe Gorge Railway” reached Nekomata. It was extended to develop the HEP plant. Finally in 1937, the railway reached a length of over 20km and reached Keyakidaira. The line to Nekomata operated on a 600V DC supply. The full route from Unazuki to Keyakidaira is shown in the two map excerpts below. [5]

The present railway was used for the construction of the Kurobe dam for the Kansai Electric Power Company, which was completed in 1963; Kurotetsu was spun off from the power company in June 1971, but remains a wholly owned subsidiary. At its remote terminus, the Main Line links to Kurobe Senyō Railway, which is not open to the general public. [6]

In 1951, the Kansai Electric Power Company was formed to provide electric power for the Kansai region of Japan. Shortly after their formation, the area suffered from drought which caused power rationing. The drought, along with the rapid growth of post–World War II Japan, pushed the company to increase their generating capacity. After a series of geological and hydrological studies of the Kurobe River and Gorge, it was announced in late 1955 that the Kurobe Dam would be constructed. [2][4] Construction began in July 1956 but problems quickly arose while transporting material to the construction site as only one small railway existed through the narrow gorge. [3][4]

Although the railway was built to transport construction materials and personnel, it passed through amazing scenery and a passenger service started in 1953 primarily as a tourism venture. Initially, the journey was considered to be dangerous and various warnings were printed on passenger tickets. [5] As we have already noted, in 1971 a new company was formed by Kansi Electric Power Co., Inc which it named as the “Kurobe Railway Co., Ltd.” This new subsidiary invested, gradually, in better passenger rolling stock. In 2008, the company operated 27 locomotives, 138 passenger carriages and 322 freight wagons. [6]

En-route from Unazuki to Keyakidiara trains first cross a large red steel truss arch bridge which is shown in the adjacent picture. [1] The Shin-Yamabiko (Mountain Echo Tree Spirit) Bridge. The name (yamabiko) was earned by the fact that the sound of the train passing by echoes in the town. Immediately after crossing the bridge the railway enters a short tunnel before  following down the eastern side of the Gorge towards Unazuki Dam.

The Dam is the most recent to be built in the Gorge. It was complete in 2001. Before reaching the location of the Dam, trains plunge once again into a tunnel.

Trains do not emerge from that tunnel until well south of the Dam alongside Lake Unazuki and close to one of the power stations in the Gorge – Shin-Yanagawara Power Plant. This hydroelectric power station resembles an ancient European castle and is located on the shores of Lake Unazuki. [1]Yanagibashi Station alongside Lake Unazuki. [7]

Travelling South down the East side of the Gorge, trains pass through Yanagibashi Station before turning East and passing through Moriishi Station. A train heads east out of the tunnel into Moriishi Station, (c) Ryota23. [8]

Travelling East from Moriisi, the line drifts away form the River Kurobe. The next station is at Kuronagi and is on the Northside of and above one of the tributaries of the Kurobe, the River Kuronagi. Here there is a footpath which leads east along that River to some hot springs. Trains leave Kuronagi Station and immediately cross the River Kuronagi over the Atobiki Bridge.Kuronagi Station [9] and the Atobiki Bridge beyond. [10]At a height of 60 meters and a length of 64 meters, this bridge spans the steepest and deepest valley along the rail line. The name is derived from the belief that previously mountain climbers would inch backwards away (atobiki) when they came face-to-face with such a seemingly bottomless valley. [1]

After crossing the River Kuronagi, trains head back towards the East side of the Kurobe Gorge, for a short while traveling southwestwards in tunnel and then reverting to a south-easterly course alongside the Gorge of the Kurobe River. At the point where the railway turns south-eastwards it passes through Sasadaira Station.A train at Sasadaira Station. [11]

The south-easterly course of the Gorge and the railway continues as far as the next Dam at Dashidaira with a station of the same name a little beyond the Dam alongside the lake formed by the Dam.Dashidaira Dam. [12]Dashidaira Station. [13]

The next significant location on the route is that of the Kurobegawa Daini Power Station. This can be seen below on the West side of the River Kuobe.The Kurobegawa Daini Power Station, the railway can be seen under a protective snow roof  on the right side of this picture. [14]

Immediately after the power station is passed the railway enters Nekomata Station which was at one time the terminus of the railway.Nekomata Railway Station. [15]

South of Nekomata, the railway continued down the East side of the Gorge. It passed in tunnel under  Higashikanetsuriyama and then crossed to the West side of the Gorge. It then passed along the North flank of Nishikanetsuriyama into Kanetsuri Station which is shown in the adjacent picture.

The line continues South on the West side of the Gorge passed the Kanetsuri Hot Springs, through a series of tunnels, and over a series of bridges before reaching the next station at Koyadaira close to the Dam of the same name.Koyadaira Dam and Railway Station.Koyadaira Dam and Railway Station, (c) Laxic Hsiao . [17]

Tunnels and bridges follow, a Power Station is passed and trains eventually arrive at Keyakidaira Station, beyond which lies the Kurobegawa Daisan Power Station, the Shinkurobegawa Daisan Power Station and the Kurobe Senyō Railway which is in private hands. [18] Both of the branches of the private railway provide access to power stations further along the Gorge.

Close to the railway station lies the Keyakidaira Visitor Centre and walks up the valley of the River Babadani are possible across two significant pedestrian bridges.

The first of these is the Okukane Bridge , a vermillion-lacquered bridge spanning the main course of the Kurobe River. The view enjoyed from this 34-meter-high bridge is breathtaking. The second is the Meiken Bridge.

 

References

  1. http://www.kurotetu.co.jp/en/railway, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  2. “Milestones:Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, 1956-63”. IEEE., https://ethw.org/Milestones:Kurobe_River_No._4_Hydropower_Plant,_1956-63#cite_note-refnum3-2, accessed 30th January 2019.
  3. Takashi Oka; The New Japan; The Rotarian, November 1960, p. 22. https://books.google.com/books?id=ajcEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=Kurobe+Dam+1956#v=onepage&q=Kurobe%20Dam%201956&f=false,  accessed on 30th January 2019.
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurobe_Dam, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  5. https://www.railway.gov.tw/Luodong/CP.aspx?SN=18164, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  6. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurobe_Gorge_Railway, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  7. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kurobe_Gorge_Railway_Yanagibashi_Station.jpg, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  8. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Moriishi+Station/@36.791973,137.613129,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m8!1e2!3m6!1sAF1QipMJgsDwRl9TskatlLFOQ5Al7t0kegupNW_ugvFC!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipMJgsDwRl9TskatlLFOQ5Al7t0kegupNW_ugvFC%3Dw203-h135-k-no!7i2047!8i1366!4m8!1m2!2m1!1skuronagi!3m4!1s0x5ff7b6dda3e99cc3:0xd84e8ce32d74153d!8m2!3d36.7919741!4d137.6131314, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  9. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Kuronagi+Station/@36.786557,137.625156,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m8!1e2!3m6!1sAF1QipOkkn0hQVlRu64xFzMzEiJ2FSYHND0zrvZMGgjn!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipOkkn0hQVlRu64xFzMzEiJ2FSYHND0zrvZMGgjn%3Dw203-h134-k-no!7i3936!8i2608!4m8!1m2!2m1!1skuronagi!3m4!1s0x0:0x22e23d0be2f09cf!8m2!3d36.7865571!4d137.6251561, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  10. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Kuronagi+Station/@36.786557,137.625156,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m8!1e2!3m6!1sAF1QipPhBsL6Awc5Diy7EsnivlU7dhhzcsFtlW_Z9_ci!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipPhBsL6Awc5Diy7EsnivlU7dhhzcsFtlW_Z9_ci%3Dw203-h152-k-no!7i2048!8i1536!4m5!3m4!1s0x5ff7b6fad2bee879:0x22e23d0be2f09cf!8m2!3d36.786557!4d137.625156, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  11. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Sasadaira+Station/@36.7831127,137.6237955,3a,75y/data=!3m11!1e2!3m9!1sAF1QipPMp8uldhHdgCqSUW8xn9oSxO69LrzNuiwB9zJH!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipPMp8uldhHdgCqSUW8xn9oSxO69LrzNuiwB9zJH%3Dw203-h152-k-no!7i1600!8i1200!9m2!1b1!2i24!4m12!1m6!3m5!1s0x5ff7b6fad2bee879:0x22e23d0be2f09cf!2sKuronagi+Station!8m2!3d36.786557!4d137.625156!3m4!1s0x5ff7b6fc6e533587:0x9b7570646a30b80!8m2!3d36.7831128!4d137.6237952, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  12. http://damnet.or.jp/cgi-bin/binranA/enAll.cgi?db4=0881, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  13. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kurobe_Gorge_Railway_Dashidaira_Station.jpg, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  14. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Kurobegawa_No.2_Power_Station, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  15. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nekomata_Station_20100904-4.jpg, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  16. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Kanetsuri+Station/@36.7344716,137.6514835,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m8!1e2!3m6!1sAF1QipOTEI4j0pOu3Y6nOxp-Xz1hd5goGjlBBtd4sGBO!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipOTEI4j0pOu3Y6nOxp-Xz1hd5goGjlBBtd4sGBO%3Dw203-h360-k-no!7i720!8i1280!4m5!3m4!1s0x5ff7c872db9dfdd3:0xdddc79f34e2a53f7!8m2!3d36.7342025!4d137.6511564, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  17. https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Koyadaira+Station/@36.7110379,137.6469909,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m11!1e2!3m9!1sAF1QipOCrQC47H9YO-fpqq_DzKa1X32a6OYC1C7Ma_1Y!2e10!3e12!6shttps:%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipOCrQC47H9YO-fpqq_DzKa1X32a6OYC1C7Ma_1Y%3Dw129-h86-k-no!7i2592!8i1728!9m2!1b1!2i20!4m5!3m4!1s0x5ff7c635e0932073:0xb92346a137017734!8m2!3d36.7110379!4d137.6469909, accessed on 30th January 2019.
  18. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurobe_Seny%C5%8D_Railway, accessed on 30th January 2019.

 

 

 

The Kelvedon and Tollesbury Light Railway

I am continuing to read through old copies of ‘The Railway Magazine’. This time it is the December 1950 edition. It contains a short article about the Kelvedon and Tollesbury Light Railway in Essex. This article held my interest because it relates to a line not too far from Braintree in Essex where we lived between 1970 and 1972. A scan of the article in the Railway Magazine is reproduced at the end of this post below the References …

The Kelvedon and Tollesbury Light Railway was an 8-mile-42-chain (13.72 km) standard-gauge light railway in Essex, England. It was authorised under the Light Railways Act 1896 and operated between the two villages of Kelvedon (on the Great Eastern Main Line) and Tollesbury to the south of Colchester on the coast. The line, which was part of the Great Eastern Railway (GER), was authorised on 29 January 1901, although its opening was delayed until 1 October 1904. [1][2][3]The approximate route of the line shown on OpenStreetMap.

The area served by the railway lay between the GER main line and the coast, mostly agricultural land, with fruit being a main crop. At Tiptree, Wilkin & Sons, the jam-making firm, founded in 1885,[4] provided a large amount of the freight traffic; it had also been hoped that a tourist trade would ensue from the yachts moored near Tollesbury. The line became known locally as The Crab and Winkle Line, although the original railway to bear that name was the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, which used a play on the initial letters of the line.

Arthur Wilkin, the proprietor of the jam making family firm, was intent on having the railway built because Tiptree was only a farmstead in a large heathland. Fruit had to be taken to Kelvedon, the nearest village, by horse and cart, which took time. There were no made roads, just rugged tracks. For the company, it was imperative that they had a railway. In fact, Arthur Wilkin threatened to move his jam company to Dagenham if the railway was not built. [2]

Tiptree, Tollesbury and Tolleshunt D’Arcy had substantial buildings; the otherintermediate stations had an old passenger coach for accommodation. [1] All the platforms were at a low level; there was no signalling, since only one locomotive worked the line; and only local tickets were issued on the trains; there were no through tickets to mainline stations. [4]

The 1.75 miles (2.8 km) extension to Tollesbury Pier never brought the expected traffic. During World War I it was used for troop training on the river and was subsequently closed to passengers in 1921.The government took it over during World War II and erected defences along it.[2] Final closure to passenger traffic took place on 5th May 1951, just 6 months or so after the article in The Railway Magazine was written. Freight traffic continued between Tollesbury Pier and Tiptree until 29th October of the same year. The section between Tiptree and Kelvedon continued in use for freight traffic until 28th September 1962. [1]

The total construction cost of the line from Kelvedon to the River Blackwater was estimated at £45,000 or £4,667 a mile. The maximum speed allowed was 25mph and 10mph through villages and ungated level crossings. Fares on the first journeys were only offered as third class. For the full excursion from Kelvedon to Tollesbury, you would have been charged 9d (about 4p), and the journey would have taken 40 minutes if there were no accidents or animals on the line. [2]

On the last day of the passenger service: “On the engine’s firebox were chalked ‘Born 1904. Died 1951’, and on the bunker was the solemn warning, ‘There be many a poor soul have to walk’. This last train to Tollesbury arrived on time at 6.25pm, and on departure for the last time to Kelvedon was accompanied by as much noise as the departure on the outward journey.” [1] Following the last passenger train from Kelvedon, a black coffin from Kelvedon with wreaths, one of which was shaped in the letters of BR, was laid along Tiptree platform. On the side of the train, someone had chalked: “Crab and Winkle, sorry to say, you died because you did not pay.” [2]

Access at the Kelvedon terminus was by a footway running across the road bridge and descent to the Low Level Station. The Low level station is shown in the two images above. [5]Passengers waited here for their train in a wooden shed. A mixed train behind a GER 0-6-0 tank near Kelvedon on the Kelvedon & Tollesbury Light Railway in around 1910. [6]

The stations/halts served by the line were, Feering, Inworth, Tiptree, Tolleshunt Knights and Tolleshunt D’Arcy, before reaching Tollesbury and finally Tollesbury Pier. [1]

The route meandered through the Essex countryside, the maximum gradient being 1 in 50. The tightest curves occurred on the final section between Tolleshunt D’Arcy and Tollesbury and included an agricultural siding at Old Hall. The stations at Tiptree and Tollesbury were the most attractive on the line. The latter consisted of a small goods yard, complete with loading gauge and cart road and wooden buildings. Tiptree Station. [6]Tollesbury Station. [5]Tolleshunt Knights Halt. [1]

The line then crossed the road, Station Road, by an open crossing on the other side of which was a run-round loop. [1]

The extension to Tollesbury Pier was completed on 15th May 1907 about two years after the rest of the line. It remained open for less than 20 years and skirted the village before dropping steadily to the River Blackwater. Two roads, Woodrolfe Road and Woodrolfe Farm Lane were crossed by this final section of the line. The terminus facilities included an old coach body and a red brick hut about 40 yards from where the pier began. [1]The Tollesbury Pier Station. [7]

In 1939, the pier extension, which had only remained open until 1921, was taken over by the then War Department. Part of the structure was blown up in 1940 as an anti-invasion precaution. The overgrown track was terminated in a sand-drag and used by four locomotives to service the mobile guns that were stationed along the estuary. Part of the extension had been used previously for the storage of rolling stock, but the wooden pier had been allowed to fall into disrepair after closure nineteen years earlier. [1]

During war-time, a pill-box of thick reinforced concrete was built on the land end of the pier, and a control tower for the many electrically controlled mines, which effectively blockaded the estuary against enemy attack, was built about mile inland on the seaward side of the line. The old pier was finally demolished when the line was taken up in 1951, and any traces that might have been left were washed away when the great floods of February 1953 inundated the north bank of the Blackwater for about mile inland. Even the few rotting stumps of timber which stood above the mud at low tide have now disappeared. [1]

“Services were neither rapid nor very frequent. A majority of the trains were mixed and the time allowed for the journey was between 30 and 40 minutes. No trains ran on Sundays.” [1]

“By 1937 branch traffic was in steady decline. Ten years later passenger journeys had reached their lowest ebb – averaging only 33 return journeys along the entire route each day.” [1]

Searching the internet, I have found a number of texts relating to the line which I have not yet been able to read:

  • N.J. Stapleton; The Kelvedon and Tollesbury Light Railway; Forge Books; 2nd Revised edition edition, December 1975.
  • M. House; The Kelvedon to Tollesbury Railway: A Pictoral History;
  • Vic Mitchell; Branch Lines Around Witham and Kelvedon: Bishop’s Stortford, Maldon, Tollesbury; Middleton Press, 2010.
  • Peter Paye; The Tollesbury Branch; Oxford Pub Co, 1985.

I have also had this link to a video pointed out to me:

References

  1. Keith Lovell; The Crab and Winkle Line; http://www.tollesbury.org/history/crab_winkle.html, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  2. http://www.tiptreeturner.co.uk/crabandwinkle.html, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvedon_and_Tollesbury_Light_Railway, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  4. R.C.J. Day and R.K. Kirkland; The Kelvedon & Tollesbury Light Railway; The Railway Magazine Tothill Press Ltd, Volume 96 No. 496, December 1950, p838-842, p847.
  5. http://railthing.blogspot.com/2015/11/tollesbury-kelvedon-low-level-top-two.html, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  6. https://spellerweb.net/rhindex/UKRH/OtherRailways/Tollesbury.html, accessed on 29th January 2019.
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollesbury_Pier_railway_station, accessed on 29th January 2019.

The Ashover Light Railway – Part 3

The Route of the Ashover Light Railway – Stretton to Ashover Butts

Baldwin 4-6-0T ‘Joan’ at Stretton in 1930. [5]Joan heading South from Stretton, (c) M. W. Earley [6]

South of the Halt at Stretton, the railway travelled for well over a kilometre alongside the main standard-gauge line before it began to bear away from the Midland line towards the west, soon entering the valley of the River Amber. The next halt was at Hurst Lane, but there was an intermediate passing loop for stabling purposes at Ford.

Ford Loop was “the lowest point on the railway. In the early days a steam locomotive would wait here ready to pilot heavy stone trains to Clay Cross, but objection was made to the weight on the bridges and subsequently the engine was attached to the rear of the train as a banker. Years later the morning stone from Ashover would drop half its load here and collect it in the afternoon.” [4]

Beyond Ford Loop, wagons of coal for nearby Ogston Hall could be accommodated in a siding alongside Ford Lane.Ogston Hall. [15]

The line climbed steadily at a grade of 1 in 220 on its journey to Hurst Lane which was provided with facilities for trains in both directions to take water simultaneously.[2] It had a wooden shelter and telephone box, together with a water tank on wooden trestles. There were points for a siding near the shelter, but this was never laid. The water tank was gone by the late 1940s. [1][7]

Beyond Hurst Lane, the gradient of the line steepened to 1 in 99, wooded slopes which surround the line in the lowest part of the valley gave way to open country as the railway ran on towards Woolley. Along the route of the line, bridges were used to allow the line to remain on an acceptable alignment despite to meanderings of the River Amber. Just before reaching Woolley and after crossing the river on a bridge, the line passed what could have been the location of its main junction. Within the original authorisation for the construction of the line was a route to Alton Colliery. Although authorised, this line was never built. [8]

Alton Colliery was not re-opened. K.P. Plant notes: “Examination of the Deposited Plans shows that the branch would have had a continuous climb to the colliery from its junction … west of Hurst Lane. Traffic would have been worked on the endless rope principle and, as level crossings were vetoed, extra expense would have been incurred in providing 5 road bridges. The order restricted the gradient on the branch to 1 in 10, the minimum radius of curves to 5 chains, and not surprisingly prohibited it to passenger traffic.” [9]

By this time, the surrounding countryside was more hilly.

At Woolley, the next halt, a public road was crossed, and goods facilities were provided. This halt, and those at Dalebank and Milltown, took their names from hamlets on the hillside. In most cases passengers were also picked up and set down wherever public roads were crossed.

Woolley Halt comprised  “the usual shelter, together with a telephone box, plate-layers cabin and Clay Cross Company coal office (closed about 1934) and a siding to hold four or five wagons.” [7] The Halt served the village of Woolley Moor. Some time before its closure, the telephone was moved from the box into the office, as coal sales were initially good, but soon deteriorated. The section of track where the station once stood has now been flooded by the Ogston Reservoir. [1] The sketch plan above [14] shows the line of the Light Railway and the extent of the reservoir. The railway route only appears out of the water just to the southeast of what is now the B6014 and had it survived, the line would have followed the lake shore to the right of the image below. This northwestern tip of Ogston Reservoir is cut off from the main reservoir by the B6014. This is where the River Amber joins the reservoir, its course can be seen when water levels are low. [13]

Beyond Woolley trees encroached on the line again and the railway crossed the Amber two times as it continued to climb up the valley. The next halt was Dale Bank Halt, which had a wooden shelter. The halt was always very underused, despite being just half a mile from Stubben Edge Hall. [7]Stubben Edge Hall. [16]

A further 500 metres or so up the line the railway crossed a small bridge and arrived at Milltown Halt. Provision was originally made here for a siding but one was not built. The points were removed at the beginning of the 1930s. [7] The halt was reach via a short roadway from Oakstedge Lane. [1]

Before leaving the lower end of the Amber Valley, it is worth a note about the reservoir which now floods much of the area. Ogston Reservoir was completed in 1958 and dramatically altered the appearance of the Amber Valley. Today (2019) it is regarded positively and has become a magnate for birds. [12] The reservoir was originally created to supply the National Coal Board’s Carbonisation Plant at Wingerworth but is now run by Severn Trent Water and supplies water for the local area and is used as a holding ground for water for nearby Carsington Reservoir. It has an area of 220 acres of open water, holds 1300 million gallons of water and gets its water from the River Amber. [10]

The flooding of the valley in 1958, completely submerged farmland, roads and part of the Ashover Light Railway. The reservoir also destroyed most of the village of Woolley. The villagers were relocated into council houses built in another local hamlet, Badger Lane, which eventually became known as the village of Woolley on the Moor, which subsequently became the present village of Woolley Moor. [10]

Local feelings in the late 1950s are highlighted in an article written at the time by Mrs Annie Fox. [11] she draws attention to the changing scene after the building of the dam. Her words are in italics:

In days gone by, Woolley House a large Country house was run as a Hydro and took in visitors all the year round. Attached to it was a small village store where you could buy anything from a box of matches to a cwt: of corn. In the yard at the back was the old Joiners shop, which was used by the local undertaker.

Later the house was sold and divided up into 6 small cottages made out of the big house, the shop 11 other cottages and the old public house Napoleon’s Home, all will soon be destroyed by the New Ogston Reservoir built to supply industry with millions of gallons of water.

The Napoleon’s Home has been in the family of the Fox’s for generations past, and is still bother owned and run by Mr Fox today. In its grounds the village football team used to play, also the cricket team had their pitch. Here the Flower and Vegetable Show has been held every year for the past 48 years. Now they are told it cannot stay. The villagers have to leave homes in which some were born, and lived for a life, time, to make way for the flooding of the valley. At present only the Public House remains occupied. When the bulldozers have finished their work, one cottage on the other side of the road will remain, standing out like a landmark with the past. Its occupant an old gentleman who has seen many changes in his life time, now spends a lot of time directing many and various people up the hill, to where the villagers have been re-housed in Council houses, almost making a new village on top of the hill. Before, only a few cottages and small holdings stood there.

The old sheep wash too, has been destroyed where local farmers used to bring their sheep for washing. The bridge across the river is being raised; cranes, concrete mixers and bulldozers spoil the quiet countryside.

At one side of the river at this point stood the laundry where washing from both Woolley Hydro and Stubbin Edge Hall was done.

On the other side of the river stood a house built by a local man named Beresford, also his Blacksmiths shop, where both he and his man worked regularly.

Across the river set out among spacious lawns was Amber Valley Camp School. Built in 1939 to give 250 children from urban areas the benefit of having a month’s education in rural surroundings. During the war, it was used to re-house a Public School evacuated from Derby. This too will soon be swept away by bulldozers to make way for the rising waters.

At the other side of the valley stand the Pumping Station, and the Purifying plant.

On top of the spur stood a large Georgian house know as The Ford House. In its lovely grounds also stood the Gardeners and Butlers cottages, these too have been swept away, to make way for the modern dwellings to house reservoir officials. On the other side of the road, in a large meadow, stands another group of new houses built for reservoir staff.

At the bottom of the valley by the side of the river used to run a footpath. Over 30 years ago a then young school mistress took a class of infants on a picnic into a field which the footpath ran through by the river, that day has never been forgotten. They fished they played cricket, and drank milk and tea carried from a Farm House up on top of the hill 4 steep fields away. What a day they had – no more will do it. Now the same field lies 30 feet under water, only memories are left. But to those who took part in it, it stands out as one of the most wonderful days of childhood.

The old Mill too has gone. It used to be driven by a water wheel and was well known for miles around. No more will carts take rough stone in at one side of the yard and sawn blocks out at the other.

In the past the valley was one of Derbyshire’s beauty spots, a lovely place in summer, but forgotten in winter. What will it be now?

In the early 21st Century, Ogston Reservoir provides many leisure activities including sailing, windsurfing and trout fishing. There have been 200 species of bird life recorded at Ogston including Wilson’s phalarope, Sabine’s gull and long-tailed skuas. There are two observation hides used by local bird watchers.

The present sailing club building which can be viewed from the field was originally the Amber Valley Camp School. It was built in 1939 to give 250 children from urban areas the benefit of have a months education in rural surroundings. [10] It seems, with the benefit of hindsight, that Mrs Fox’s fears have not been borne out, despite what has been lost.

We are now some distance up the line from the northwestern end of the reservoir.One of the most picturesque stretches of the line was in the vicinity of the halt at Dale Bank where the wooden shelter formerly stood on the left of the above photograph beyond the road. The pit in the foreground replaced the original wooden cattle guards, © K.P. Plant (4th March 1951). [6]

The gradient eased beyond Dale Bank. The line passed the Miners Arms on the left and turned northwards into a deep cutting and then passed a fluorspar washing plant and sidings. One of those sidings climbed to the Clay Cross limestone quarry. Although close to Fallgate station the quarry was known as the Milltown Quarry. [17]

The next stop on the line was Fallgate. Fallgate was an important mineral traffic centre, with short branches to quarries and their associated electric power station, and extensive siding accommodation (as we have already noted). Here, also, were additional locomotive and carriage sheds. [2] The station/halt served the hamlet of Fallgate. It had a wooden shelter, a telephone box and a water tank. The station stood at the north end of a 100-yard loop adjacent to a level crossing. There was also a coal sales depot, and in 1927, a limestone dust grinding plant was built. However, due to repeated complaints by local residents, the plant was dismantled and moved to the Clay Cross Works. A tarmacadam plant was also built, operating from 1936 to 1948. [1][17]This excellent drawing (badly scanned) is taken from the 1965 edition of K.P. Plant’s book on the Ashover Light Railway. In interpreting the plan it is important to remember that North is to the righthand-side of the plan. [18]

On the above plan, the Fluorspar washing plant is to the left, and the line from Clay Cross enters from the left just below the plant. The route to the quarry runs north and the line onwards to Ashover heads off to the right side of the plan. The power station is close to the River Amber on the right side of the image, it can just be seen to the right of the (1/1).

The location has been the subject of a superb 009 model which, while foreshortening some distances has been as faithful as possible to the location. The layout is called: “Fallgate: Ashover Light Railway.” It was created by Brian Love, a member of the 009 Society, and since 1998 it has been extensively exhibited throughout Southern and Eastern England. It is now owned by Stephen Little and Matthew Barrett and is based in Manchester. [19]The track plan of the 009 layout – Fallgate. The Fluorspar Washer is on the top-left of the track plan with the tarmac plant in the middle-right opposite the station building. The two lines to the right of the track plan represent the line into the quarry and the line on to Ashover repectively. [19]The model of the Fluorspar Washer, (c) Stephen Little. [19]The model of the Tarmas plant with the timber station building in the foreground, (c) Stephen Little. [19]The model of the cottages at Fallgate, (c) Stephen Little. [19]Fallgate Station before the construction of the Tarmacadam plant which sat beyond the timber station shelter on the left of the image. [23]

The tracks in the immediate vicinity of Fallgate station were not lifted at the same time as the rest of the Ashover Light Railway. They remained in place late into the 1960s serving the quarrying operation at the site. Indeed, as can be seen in the photograph below, some sections of track have survived into the 21st Century.Railway lines in the track leading to Milltown/Fallgate/Felbrigg Quarry, (c) Graham Hogg. [21]The formation of the Ashover Light Railway remained in use at Fallgate into the late 1960s as a works railway operating in the immediate vicinity of the Washing Plant and the old station as is shown in this drawing from Plant’s book about the Ashover Light Railway. [28]Fluorspar Crushing Mill at Fallgate, recently refurbished. [20]

The adjacent Google Earth satellite image shows the approximate route of the railway through Fallgate and the location of the small station building.

The railway formation ran on the West side of the River Amber through the halt and then followed what is now a lane called Jetting Street.

At the North side of the station a horse-worked branch line ran up a 1 in 13 gradient to a set of the screens and loading hoppers which were fed from a high level line out of the adjacent quarry.  [17]

Along that length of the valley, the railway passed the Fallgate power house which was sited on the opposite bank of the River Amber. It had stone walls and a red asbestos roof. The power house supplied electricity to the Clay Cross Company quarries. [24]

Milltown/Felbrigg/Fallgate Quarry. [22]

Along this length of the line, trains also passed an old mill and water wheel. That mill is shown in a refurbished condition above. It was a water-powered corn mill. Dated 1781, but with earlier work incorporated within the present structure. It was restored in 1987-8. A restored overshot wheel with metal sideplates and timber buckets was set into the  wheelpit. A metal pentrough delivers water to the wheel head. The interior of the mill and the machinery have been fully restored. [25]

Salter Lane, the next halt, was the nearest to the main part of Ashover town, but the line continued to a triangular junction, used for turning purposes, with the spur leading to the passenger terminus at Ashover (Butts), near the old and historic parish church. [2]

Salter Lane (for Ashover) was just half a mile from Overton Hall. It consisted of a low platform with a wooden shelter and a nameboard. The shelter is no longer present, but the edge of the platform is still visible. [1]Overton Hall was once the home of the naturalist Sir Joseph Banks. [27]Overton Hall was, from 1942, certified to operate as an approved school for boys. It served in this capacity until 1948, not long before the Ashover Light Railway closed. From 1950 to 1956, it operated as a youth hostel. Later it served as an old people’s home. In the early 21st Century, it is now a private residence. [26]Salter Lane can be made out on the above map at the point where it crosses the route of the ALR South of Ashover. It was the closest stop to the village.The proximity of the Salter Lane Halt (right of middle in the image) to the village of Ashover is illustrated above. [34]The end of the line.

Ashover Butts had a single platform with a wooden building, which comprised an open-fronted shelter with an office on either side, one of which was for ticket sales. The other office briefly sold confectionery, but then stood unused for many years. Latterly, it was used to store moulds from the Butts concrete plant.[29] In the last couple of years before passenger services ended, the building was painted grey. [1][30] The station building is shown in the first image below.Ashover Butts railway Station. [31]An overview of Ashover Butts Station. [33]Ashover Butts Satation was on the lineheading off to the top right of this image. The train, in the capable of 4-6-0 Baldwin, ‘Joan’, is using the triangle to turn ready for a trip back to Clay Cross Works via Stretton. The round peaked building to the top left of the image was a cafe built for tourists travelling on the ALR – the ‘Where the Rainbow Ends’ Cafe [32]Another view of the Cafe. [34]A view back down the line towards Stretton taken from close to the ‘Where the Rainbow Ends’ Cafe. [34]

The base of the triangle was extended to Butts Quarry further up the valley. The Google Earth satellite image above shows the approximate line of that extension. The Quarry is now the site of a MotoX track. [35]

The triangle at Ashover Butts was replicated at Clay Cross. These triangles meant that trains could be maintained intact with the locomotives running chimney first, in which conditions the type in use performed most efficiently. Also, as they were 4-6-0 tank engines, it was advantageous for negotiating the sharp curves on the line to have the bogie leading. [2]

To complete our journey along the line, it is worth noting that Wild Swan published a book about the Ashover Light Railway. The book was written by Stewart R. Band and Robert Gratton and published in 1989. [36]

BackTrack Magazine carried an article written by Tim Warner on the Ashover Light Railway in its May/June 1992 issue. A copy of the article is produced below the references section. [37]

Julian Holland has a chapter about the line in his book, “Discovering Britain’s Little Trains. [38]

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashover_Light_Railway, accessed on 13th January 2018.
  2. The Ashover Light Railway; The Railway Magazine, Volume 96, No. 593, September 1950.
  3. http://www.alrs.org.uk/site/?page_id=31, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  4. K.P. Plant; The Ashover Light Railway. The Oakwood Press, 1965, p44.
  5. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/374221050282986254, accessed on 23rd January 2019.
  6. K.P. Plant; The Ashover Light Railway. The Oakwood Press, 1965, pictures between p44 and p45.
  7. K.P. Plant; The Ashover Light Railway. The Oakwood Press, 1965, p45.
  8. Ibid., p4 & p10.
  9. Ibid., p11-12.
  10. http://www.derbyshireuk.net/ogston_reservoir.html, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  11. http://www.strettonhandley.derbyshire.sch.uk/oldwebsite/areservoirtakesitstoll.html, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  12. http://www.ogstonbirdclub.co.uk, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogston_Reservoir, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  14. The Ashover Light Railway Society, Short Walks on a Railway Theme – Walk Number 3, Country Estates and Waterworks, Stretton to Ogston.
  15. https://www.brackenfield.org/ogston-hall-visit-picnic-at-the-hall#&gid=347&pid=1, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  16. http://m.ipernity.com/#/doc/buildings/25566191, accessed on 26th January 2019.
  17. K.P. Plant, op. cit., p46.
  18. Ibid., p37.
  19. http://www.stephenelittle.com/fallgate/#layout, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  20. http://m.ipernity.com/#/doc/302581/45025008, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  21. https://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/3861366, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  22. https://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1855664, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  23. http://www.ashover.org/photo107.htm, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  24. K.P. Plant, op. cit., p47.
  25. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1241794, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  26. http://www.childrenshomes.org.uk/AshoverAS, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  27. http://www.ashover.org/photo130.htm, accessed on 27th January 2019.
  28. K.P. Plant, op. cit., p47.
  29. Ibid., p48.
  30. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashover_Butts_railway_station, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  31. http://railthing.blogspot.com/2014/01/ashover-light-railway.html, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  32. https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/131871095323434925/?lp=true, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  33. https://www.ebay.co.uk/bhp/ashover-light-railway, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  34. https://picclick.co.uk/Set-of-12-Ashover-Light-Railway-Postcards-original-273663372391.html, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  35. https://www.facebook.com/pages/Butts-Quarry-MotoX-Track/119689744810650, accessed on 28th January 2019.
  36. Stewart R. Band and Robert Gratton; The Ashover Light Railway; Wild Swan, Didcot, 1989.
  37. Tim Warner; BackTrack Magazine, Volume 6, No.3, May/June 1992, p127-129.
  38. Julian Holland; Discovering Britain’s Little Trains; AA Publishing, Basingstoke, 2008, p56-69.

The Ashover Light Railway – Part 2

The Route of the Ashover Light Railway – Clay Cross Works to Stretton

The main Clay Cross Company Works were adjacent to the LMS main line from Sheffield to Derby, just  south of Clay Cross Junction. The main facilities (locomotive and carriage sheds) for the Light Railway were at the site of the Works. The Clay Cross Company had standard-gauge sidings connected to the LMS mainline. There was an inclined siding alongside one of these sidings which permitted the narrow gauge line’s wagons to be propelled to a height where they could be tipped into standard gauge wagons. An electrical mechanism was used for this work. [2] In order to permit narrow-gauge access into the works standard-gauge track was crossed by means of hinged rail sections. [2]The ramped siding alongside the standard-gauge works line and the hinged rail sections also show up well in this image. They could be turned through 90°. The picture shows the transshipment tippler in early 1925, looking North. Ashover Light Railway wagons were hauled up the ramp using an electric winch and their contents tipped, by way of a moveable shute into standard gauge wagons on the siding below. (c) Topical Press Agency. [5]

As the map above shows, the line left Clay Cross Works in a Westerly direction before first turning Northwest and then round to the South. [4] The works themselves were on the East side of the standard-gauge line as it emerged from the North portal of Clay Cross tunnel. The Clay Cross and Egstow Station was in the location shown on the map below at the south side of the Works site. Clay Cross Works in 1929. [7]

Clay Cross & Egstow passenger terminus – a single low platform with a wooden shelter – was on a short spur line, and was about half a mile from Clay Cross Station on the LMS. These pictures give a good impression of the station. [2][3][6][10]The station and yard. [6]Clay Cross and Egstow Station. [10]The track plan of the Clay Cross Works showing both standard and narrow gauge lines. [24]

The Wikipedia article about the line states: “Clay Cross and Egstow [Station] had an unusually large name-board (10 ft by 3 ft) which stood on the single low platform. [12]  There was a wooden station building consisting of an open-fronted wooden shelter, which had the manager’s office on one side, and on the other what was intended as a parcels office, but was actually used as a general storeroom. The station was the only one on the line to enjoy electric lighting.” [1]

The spur line from the station joined the line from the Works. After the junction with the Station spur, the main line climbed a fairly steep gradient, down which wagons attached to the rear of trains coming from the Ashover direction were allowed to run by gravity into reception sidings after the coaches had been hauled into the passenger station. [1] The relatively steep gradient allowed the narrow-gauge line to climb up an embankment to cross the main road north of Clay Cross (now the A61). That climb is shown in the first picture below.The route from Clay Cross & Egstow, with the Pirelli Bridge visible in the background. It is just possible to make out Chesterfield Road station, with the wooden walkway leading up from road level. [3]

The bridge over the main road was known locally as the Pirelli Bridge. It was a steel girder bridge spanning 45 feet. The height had to be 16 feet above road level, which required a half-mile long approach embankment to be built. The bridge and embankment and one cutting were the only major pieces of engineering on the entire route between Clay Cross and Ashover. [1] The nickname was the result of the Pirelli Tyre Company at Burton-upon-Trent having a large advertisement painted on the bridge. [2]The Pirelli Bridge over the A61. [8]The same location painted by David Charlesworth. [9]

The first stopping place was Chesterfield Road Halt, immediately beyond the bridge. As a frequent service of buses passed the halt, [13] this was the usual point at which Chesterfield passengers joined and left the trains during the period that passenger traffic was maintained. In 1940, the wooden shelter was destroyed in a gale, and the pieces were used to construct a small store-shed at the back of the Clay Cross locomotive shed. [1]

Immediately beyond Chesterfield Road was Hilltop passing loop, but no platform was provided there. [2] Up to this point, the railway was on embankment. It now travelled through a series of cuttings and three different halts.Hilltop Cutting, North of Holmgate Halt and Holmgate Lane. This view looks South towards Holmgate and was taken in 1934. (c) I.M. Purdy. [14]

The first cutting was Hilltop Cutting and this was the most significant cutting on the route. Travelling South trains reached Holmgate Road with its halt just beyond. Holmgate Halt had a siding capable of holding around six wagons. It was provided with a small wooden shelter and a telephone box. [1] Evidence suggests [15] that the siding was located on the North side of Holmgate Road and the Halt on the South side. [14] The route of the line at this point is illustrated on the adjacent sketch which is contained in one of the walks leaflets produced by the Ashover Light Railway Society. [17]

The three images immediately below are taken at the approximate location of the road crossing for Holmgate Road. The first image looks North along the line of the old railway. The second looks south through bollards along the line of the track bed of the old railway. The third looks down an adjacent modern footpath towards the line of the railway heading South. The crossing at Holmgate Road was un-gated.

At the point where the tramac path turns to the left, the railway formation follows on its right side. Pushing aside the foliage at this point, it is possible to access the remains of the old railway bridge over a small tributary of the River Amber which left the Amber at near Ogston Hall. [17]Holmgate Road looking North along the line of the old railway.Holmgate Road looking South along the line of the old railway. The halt was immediately to the South of the road and its small building was on the left of this image. There is a grainy image of the halt in the Ashover Light Railway Society’s recent booklet. [14] This may be the only image of the halt is existence.Holmgate Road looking South. At the point where this footpath turns to the left ahead, it is immediately alongside what was the route of the Ashover Light Railway. That point is adjacent to the old stream bridge. [17]

We have noted that immediately South of Holmgate Halt, the railway crossed a small tributary of the River Amber (Smithy Brook) which left the Amber at near Ogston Hall.

Following the modern-day tarmacked path takes one immediately alongside the old railway formation which runs through the copse area to the West of the path. The fishing pond encountered to the left of the modern path was not present when the railway was still in use. The car park for the fishing pond is at the location of Springfield Halt. The Halt consisted of nothing more than a name-board at a point where the line was crossed by a footpath/track. The location can be seen at the top of the adjacent map. [13][16]

After a short trip across the fields, Clay Lane was reached. Clay Lane Halt had a wooden shelter and a telephone box. It was located about a quarter of a mile from the main street in Clay Cross, near the Royal Oak public house. The points were laid for a siding, but this was never built, due to meagre goods traffic. Despite this, passenger traffic was initially good. [1]The Royal Oak shown on the map above on Clay Lane is now a private home. [18]

The railway line met Clay Lane a little to the West of the Royal Oak Pub. The location is shown on the adjacent sketch map. [19] The pictures below are taken from Clay Lane. The first looks North along the line of the railway which was roughly on the line of the driveway. The second looks South along the line.

The Halt was on the North side of Clay Lane and is shown in a photograph in the 2016 book by Trevor Gosling. [16]

From Clay Lane, the line followed the ex-LMS standard-gauge Sheffield-Derby line, to Stretton. Close to the location of Stretton Halt, the railway crossed Horsescar Brook. Both this brook and Smithy Brook ran parallel to the two railway lines, either side of the standard-gauge railway cutting.

The mainline station was in deep cutting and pictures of the Ashover Light Railway Halt and railway taken from Ashover Road (B6014) often include sight of one of the coping stones at the end of the railway bridge wingwall.

The proximity of the Halt and the mainline station at Stretton meant that Stretton was the ideal interchange with the LMS. It had a wooden shelter, with a goods office and a telephone box. The loop-line at Stretton was used as accommodation for connecting trains. The timetables with the main line did not always coincide, and ALR trains sometimes had to wait for nearly half an hour. The loop line was removed in the 1940s. [1][20]Looking North along the line from Clay Lane.Looking South along the line from the same point on Clay Lane.The railway formation North of Ashover Road (B6014) followed the gravel track beyond the metal field gate. The coping stone and bridge wingwall are to the right side of the picture. The halt was on the North side of the road.Stretton Halt is in the middle distance. [23]

Ashover Light Railway Locomotive Joan at Stretton, entering the loop. [21] Joan at Stretton Level Crossing with a railway society tour in open mineral wagons. The coping stone to the right of the picture is still in place at the crossing location. [22]

The adjacent images show the coping stone in the above picture in the early 21st Century and the condition of the formation some years ago now. [2]

The crossing at Ashover Road, Stretton was the only protected crossing on the line. Stretton was the most important intermediate stopping place on the line, 2.5 miles from Clay Cross. [2] “For most of the distance from Clay Cross to Stretton the light railway ran parallel with the main Sheffield-Derby LMS line. The scenery to here was scarcely attractive, the influence of the nearby collieries being somewhat persistent, but, after leaving Stretton, the surroundings soon became very pretty.” [2]

We will explore the remainder of the line in the next post.

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashover_Light_Railway, accessed on 13th January 2018.
  2. The Ashover Light Railway; The Railway Magazine, Volume 96, No. 593, September 1950.
  3. http://www.alrs.org.uk/site/?page_id=31, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  4. https://maps.nls.uk/os/25k-gb-1937-61/index.html, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  5. Trevor L. Gosling; The Ashover Light Railway 1925-1950, An Illustrated Presentation; The Ashover Light Railway Society, Winger worth, Chesterfield, 2016; p15.
  6. https://picclick.co.uk/Clay-Cross-railway-station-and-yard-Ashover-Light-273368783149.html, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  7. https://municipaldreams.wordpress.com/2015/page/4, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  8. http://www.claycrosstoday.co.uk/Ashover-Light-Railway, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  9. http://davidcharlesworthart.com/railway.htm, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  10. http://colonelstephenssociety.co.uk/the%20colonels%20railways/ashover%20light%20railway/ashover%20light%20railway%20photo%20gallery.html, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  11. https://mapio.net/pic/p-75953053, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  12. K.P. Plant; The Ashover Light Railway. The Oakwood Press, 1987, p33.
  13. Ibid., p35.
  14. Trevor L. Gosling; The Ashover Light Railway 1925-1950, An Illustrated Presentation; The Ashover Light Railway Society, Winger worth, Chesterfield, 2016; p17.
  15. Ibid., p11.
  16. Ibid., p18.
  17. The Ashover Light Railway Society, Short Walks on a Railway Theme – Walk Number 1, Over the Hill – Clay Cross Works to Holmgate.
  18. http://www.claycrosstoday.co.uk/Pubs-Of-The-Past, accessed on 20th January 2019.
  19. The Ashover Light Railway Society, Short Walks on a Railway Theme – Walk Number 2, Across Green Pastures, Clay Cross to Stretton.
  20. K.P. Plant; op. cit; p44.
  21. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/374221050282986254/?lp=true, accessed on 19th January 2019.
  22. http://colonelstephenssociety.co.uk/the%20colonels%20railways/ashover%20light%20railway/ashover%20light%20railway%20members%20weekend/ashover%20light%20railway%20members%20weekend%20route.html, accessed on 14th January 2019. … RLinkinS on the forum national-preservation.com says: “I think this is the Birmingham Locomotive Club’s trip on 24/08/1948. There is a colour picture in Michael Whitehouse’s new album and the stains on the front of the smokebox are identical.” (https://www.national-preservation.com/threads/the-ashover-light-railway.1302307/#post-2352339, accessed on 16th January 2019).
  23. https://picclick.co.uk/Stretton-Ashover-Light-Railway-View-of-Stretton-390729127429.html, accessed on 19th January 2019.
  24. K.P. Plant; The Ashover Light Railway. The Oakwood Press, 1965, p36.

The Ashover Light Railway – Part 1

The September 1950 edition of “The Railway Magazine” includes a short article on the Ashover Light Railway in the Peak District to the south of Chesterfield. In the spring of that year, the railway was finally closed to traffic.

The featured image above comes from the front page of the Ashover Light Railway Society’s website. That Society is working to recreate the atmosphere of the Ashover Butts terminus of this railway in its heyday. [3] The website can be found at:  http://www.alrs.org.uk

The featured image in this blog was painted by Eric Leslie. You can find out more about him, and his art, on the FB page drawnbysteam. He donates his work free of charge to several NG railways, helping them to raise funds.

NB: I always seek to ensure that no copyright is infringed in my blogs. Any infringement is unintentional. I will immediately take down any image when asked to do so by that image’s copyright owner.

The article states: “Although one of the most recently built light railways in Great Britain, the Ashover Light Railway, which was closed to all traffic on 31st March last (1950), had its roots in the very earliest days of British railway enterprise, for its owner, the Clay Cross Co. Ltd., was founded in 1837 by George Stephenson himself. The Clay Cross undertaking was, in effect, a by-product of railway construction, for it was while George Stephenson was superintending the building of a tunnel at Clay Cross for the North Midland Railway that he saw the vast mineral wealth revealed by the excavations of the workmen, and conceived the idea of forming a company to exploit these valuable natural resources.” [2]

The Clay Cross Company was formed by George and Robert Stephenson and the board included a number of railway worthies. Among them were George Hudson, S. Morton Peto and William Claxton. For a time, the Clay Cross Company was the largest independent employer in the UK. [1]

The Ashover Light Railway was a 1′ 11.5″ (597 mm) narrow gauge railway in the Peak District in the UK. It connected Clay Cross and Ashover. It was built to transport minerals such as limestone, fluorite, barytes and gritstone to the works at Clay Cross and further afield. [1] Its primary function related to minerals which are used in steel manufacture and which, ultimately, were exported to the USA and Canada. It was “primarily an adjunct to the undertaking of the Clay Cross Company, it also carried public traffic.” [2]

In 1918, the Clay Cross Company expanded its interests by purchasing the Overton Estate at Fallgate with the aim of extracting minerals. This required the development of a means of transportation for the minerals mentioned above. [1] Loads were anticipated to be relatively light and Light Railway Orders were used to gain permission for the construction of a narrow gauge line, “which coupled with the facts that, for much of its course, it was built on land belonging to the Clay Cross Company and that no very heavy engineering works were involved, kept construction costs low.” [2]

The first Light Railway Order was granted on 4th December 1919, which incorporated the Ashover Light Railway Company. Subsequent powers were contained in Orders of 1920, [1] 1922 and 1924. [2][3] “The Order was passed … on condition that the railway provided a passenger service. This was agreed and construction of the Ashover Light Railway began.” [3] 

In 1920 H. F. Stephens, the consulting engineer for the line, had proposed building the entire railway to 2 ft gauge. Prior thinking had been to establish a standard-gauge rope worked line. Stephens proposal considerably reduced the costs of construction and the plan was approved. [1] Construction started in 1922.

“As the construction of the line progressed, it was realised that a passenger station at Hollow Lane would be a little tight for space, and therefore in May 1924, another Light Railway Order was applied for. This was for yet another extension, this time going from Hollow Lane to Ashover Butts where there was more room to build a station. The Order went through in August that year.” [3] The railway opened to goods traffic in 1924. The formal opening to passenger traffic took place in 1925. The line was built using surplus equipment from the War Department Light Railways. [3] The Wilipedia article about thw line states: “The line was laid throughout with 30-lb. flat-bottom rails on timber sleepers. Traffic control was by Wise’s patent train staff, and there were no semaphore signals. Telephone boxes were provided along the route to enable train movements to be reported to headquarters and controlled if necessary.” [2]

Ashover was already a tourist attraction and the route of the railway up the Amber valley was itself beautiful. The line opened from the Clay Cross works to Ashover on Monday 6th April 1925. Public traffic began on 7th April and the line was immediately popular. [2]

“The inaugural service consisted of five trains daily from Clay Cross to Ashover, a sixth starting from Hill Top loop but not picking up passengers until Holmgate, and extra late trains on Wednesday (one) and Saturday (two) nights. There were eight trains daily from Ashover to Clay Cross, and a ninth from Ashover to Holmgate. Five passenger trains each way were run on Sundays. Cheap tickets available for 12 single journeys were issued to workmen, and day returns for the general public on Wednesdays, Saturdays, and Sundays. Fares were low; cheap day returns being issued for 6d, — Clay Cross to Ashover, and it is not surprising that the trains were well patronised. Five thousand passengers were carried in the opening week, which included the Easter holiday.” [2]  Except for Chesterfield Road, Stretton, Woolley and Fallgate, trains called at the other halts only when requested. [2]

“At holiday times such as Easter and Whitsun, the Clay Cross Company laid on special outings for its employees. These involved a trip to Ashover where the day was spent picnicking on the banks of the River Amber. The popularity of the line encouraged General Jackson to provide more facilities at Ashover Butts, resulting in the construction of the ˜Where the Rainbow Ends” cafe.” Holidays were busy and extra carriages often had to be found to cope with demand. [3]

The passenger service continued to prove successful in the 1920s, but competition from buses saw numbers decline and Winter services ceased in the early 1930s. Ultimately, all passenger services were withdrawn by 1936. [3] For the last years of the life of the passenger service, the Summer timetable saw only one formal intermediate stop, at Stretton. Other stops were by request. Passenger trains ran only on Wednesdays, Saturdays and Sundays, with a frequency reduced to six trains each way on Wednesdays and Saturdays and three on Sundays, The time taken on the journey varied from 45 to 55 minutes. The regular passenger service was finally withdrawn in September, 1936. [2]

From that time, only occasional passenger trips were made. The railway continued to be used for mineral traffic, until 31st March 1950 when the line was finally closed. An Order for the winding up of the Company was issued by the Ministry of Transport on 20th May 1950. [2]

The goods service sustained the railway for its remaining years. Although at a much reduced scale that in the early years of the line. [3]

Most of this traffic came “from the Clay Cross Company’s own quarries at Ashover, Fallgate and Milltown. The extracted minerals were then used in the Clay Cross Works, or sold off around the country. Coal for the surrounding villages was carried on the railway in the early days, but this died down as the roads improved. In fact, the railway’s success led to cheaper and quicker competition from road transport.” [3]

“On September 9, 1946, General Jackson died aged 77. His son, Humphrey (Hummy), took control of the Clay Cross Company, but could not change the declining fortunes of the railway. The following year, Harold Skinner, who was a long standing driver on the railway, resigned, leaving only Charlie Maycock as sole employee of the Ashover Light Railway. By the end of 1947 the railway had made a loss of £2,000 and the Clay Cross Company made it known that they intended to close the line.” [3]

“In 1949 the railway’s last remaining contract with Butts quarry was terminated and the quarry closed in 1950.” [3] The railway closed on 31 March 1950. Most of the rail remained in place through October of that year when a last inspection trip was made. After that the majority of the railway was lifted. “The scrap dealers, Marple & Gillott, moved in that same day and commenced the lifting of the track. In September 1951 the Pirelli Bridge over Chesterfield Road was removed, marking the final stage in the dismantling of the railway. However, a short section of railway was retained at Fallgate as fluorspar was still being excavated there. This continued until early 1969 when the wagons and track work were scrapped in favour of road transport.” [3][1]

Locomotives and Rolling Stock


BRIDGET was built by Baldwin in 1917
. [3]

PEGGY, also built by Baldwin in 1917. PEGGY was scrapped in June

1951. [3]

HUMMY work on the line. [11]

“Almost all of the equipment provided for the building and running of the railway was acquired second-hand from the War Stores Disposals Board. Four American-built, Baldwin 4-6-0 tank locomotives arrived and were named PEGGY, HUMMY, JOAN, and GUY; the names given to General Jackson’s children. Shortly afterwards, a fifth similar locomotive was purchased and was given the name BRIDGET.” [3] The locomotive stock was latter augmented by a further example of the class which was name GEORGIE.

As we have noted, these locos were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, U.S.A., “for use on light railways on the French and other fronts during the war of 1914-1918. The locomotives were of typically American appearance, having sand domes, an American type of chimney, and central buffers, with outside cylinders (9 in. by 12 in.), Walschaerts valve motion, and coupled wheels measuring 1 ft. 11.5 in. dia. They had vacuum brake equipment for working passenger trains. At first they were painted Midland red to match the coaches, but this was later changed to black. By 1939, some of these steam locomotives had finished their useful life, and Guy and Georgie were scrapped.” [2]

Two further powered purchases were made. The Railway Magazine article states: “A small 0-4-0 diesel locomotive was secured, and a petrol tractor constructed with Muir-Hill Fordson equipment. There was also a small petrol-electric tractor named Amos used at Fallgate gravel pits which was illustrated and briefly described in our July-August, 1944, issue, when it was stated that this appeared to have been put together in 1939 largely from the remains of an ex-W.D. gauge locomotive. Joan appears to have been scrapped about 1944, but, with the remaining three, there is some uncertainty as to what may be regarded as ‘scrapped’ or ‘under repair’.” [2]Joan, pictured in 1926, appears to be in charge of one of the bogie coaches. [4]Joan at Stretton Level Crossing with what looks like a railway society tour in open mineral wagons. The coping stone to the right of the picture is still in place at the crossing location. [5]

The Railway Magazine article also states: “Four passenger coaches were provided when the line opened. The Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. constructed the underframes and bodies, but acquired the bogies from surplus war material. They were of the open, tramway type, and fares were collected on the trains. Later, some open-sided bogie coaches were acquired for use in summer, when passenger demands were extra heavy. The saloons were divided into two compartments, and electrically lighted. They were painted a dark red, lettered in gold, and were quite attractive looking vehicles. Riding was fairly steady, but somewhat noisy, due, probably, to the very small wheels, together with the light rails.” [2] An Ashover Light Railway passenger train. [9]

As the general condition of the railway deteriorated, only 4 of the original 12 passenger coaches were kept in running order. These were the four large bogie carriages  supplied by The Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. They “all ended up as stands on the Works bowling green. One was scrapped in 1960, two were moved to the Lincolnshire Coast Light Railway, [8] and are numbered Nos 1 and 2. No 4 was moved to the Golden Valley Light Railway. By default, … carriage No 3 was the one that was scrapped in 1960. [3]No. 2 at the Lincolnshire Coast Light Railway having been recently restored, © Nick Holliday (RMWeb) [10]

More recently, No. 4 has been resting at the Midland Railway Centre at Butterley. It is now in a fully restored condition. Ashover Light Railway Coach No. 4. [6] 

Mineral traffic was conveyed in open bogie wagons purchased from war surplus stocks, in the years immediately prior to closure a stock of 59 wagons was maintained. [2]The two images immediately above show examples of these open bogie wagons at Fallgate quarry. [7]

Part 2 of the story will follow the route of this line from Clay Cross/Egstow to Ashover.

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashover_Light_Railway, accessed on 13th January 2018.
  2. The Ashover Light Railway; The Railway Magazine, Volume 96, No. 593, September 1950.
  3. http://www.alrs.org.uk/site/?page_id=31, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  4. https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/374221050282985511, accessed on 14th January 2019.
  5. http://colonelstephenssociety.co.uk/the%20colonels%20railways/ashover%20light%20railway/ashover%20light%20railway%20members%20weekend/ashover%20light%20railway%20members%20weekend%20route.html, accessed on 14th January 2019. … RLinkinS on the forum national-preservation.com says: “I think this is the Birmingham Locomotive Club’s trip on 24/08/1948. There is a colour picture in Michael Whitehouse’s new album and the stains on the front of the smokebox are identical.” (https://www.national-preservation.com/threads/the-ashover-light-railway.1302307/#post-2352339, accessed on 16th January 2019).
  6. http://museumofthinobjects.com/2014/08/23/derbyshire-dales-tales-4-midland-railway-centre-butterley, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  7. http://colonelstephenssociety.co.uk/the%20colonels%20railways/ashover%20light%20railway/ashover%20light%20railway%20photo%20gallery.html, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  8. http://www.lclr.co.uk, accessed on 15th January 2019.
  9. https://www.deviantart.com/ffdp-neko/journal/Remembering-the-Ashover-light-railway-565004075, accessed on 16th January 2019.
  10. http://www.rmweb.co.uk/community/index.php?/topic/115061-hollidays-lincolnshire-holiday-modelling-inspirations-hopefully/page-2, accessed on 16th January 2019.
  11. https://www.themodelcentre.com/391-028, accessed on 18th January 2019.

Japanese Railway History – Cape Gauge

I have been researching the history of railways in Japan. My interest has been drawn by the use of Cape Gauge as the early standard gauge in Japan.

Cape Gauge is very close to the Metre-Gauge that many of the secondary lines in France. It is the same track gauge that was used in a number of different British colonies.The photographers notes say: JNR 3′ 6″ Gauge Class C10-8 on a turntable in Oikawa Railways Senzu station in July 2001. It was built by the Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company, Kisha Seizō in 1930, (c) D. Bellwood. [27]

Railways with a track gauge of 3′ 6″ (1,067 mm) were first constructed as horse-drawn wagonways. From the mid-nineteenth century, the 3’6″ gauge became widespread in the British Empire (although it was not used in East Africa or India) and was adopted as a standard in Japan and Taiwan.

There are approximately 112,000 kilometres (70,000 miles) of 1,067 mm gauge track in the world.The photographer’s note says: Class C11 is a type of 2-6-4T 3′ 6″ Gauge steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways and the Japanese National Railways from 1932 to 1947. A total of 381 Class C11 locomotives were built. This is JR Hokkaido C11 207 hauling a Niseko tourist service in September 2014, (c) ウツダー, Japan. [28]

The article on this subject on Wikipedia [1] says that one of the first railways to use 3′ 6″ (1,067 mm) gauge was the Little Eaton Gangway in England, constructed as a horse-drawn wagonway in 1795. Other 3′ 6″ gauge wagonways in England and Wales were also built in the early nineteenth century.

In 1862 the Norwegian engineer Carl Abraham Pihl constructed the first 3′ 6″ gauge railway in Norway, the Røros Line. Japan Railway and Transport Review carried an article about Norwegian Railways in 2002. [35]

In 1865 Queensland Railways were constructed. Its 3′ 6″ gauge was promoted by the Irish engineer Abraham Fitzgibbon and consulting engineer Charles Fox.

In 1867, the construction of the railway from the Castillo de Buitrón mine to the pier of San Juan del Puerto, Huelva, Spain, began. The width was 3′ 6″ (1,067 mm).

In 1868 Charles Fox asks civil engineer Edmund Wragge to survey a 3′ 6″ railway in Costa Rica.

In 1871 the Canadian Toronto, Grey and Bruce Railway and the Toronto and Nipissing Railway were opened, promoted by Pihl and Fitzgibbon and surveyed by Wragge as an engineer of Fox.

In January 1872, Robert Fairlie advocated the use of 3 ft 6 in gauge in his book Railways Or No Railways: Narrow Gauge, Economy with Efficiency v. Broad Gauge, Costliness with Extravagance. [4]

1872 also saw the opening of the first 3′ 6″ gauge railway in Japan, proposed by the British civil engineer Edmund Morel based on his experience of building railways in New Zealand. [5].

On 1 January 1873, the first 3′ 6″ gauge railway was opened in New Zealand, constructed by the British firm John Brogden and Sons. Earlier built 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) and broad gauge railways were soon converted to the narrower gauge.

Also in 1873, the Cape Colony adopted the 3′ 6″ gauge. [6][7]. After conducting several studies in southern Europe, the Molteno Government selected the gauge as being the most economically suited for traversing steep mountain ranges.[8] Beginning in 1873, under supervision of Railway engineer of the Colony William Brounger, [9], the Cape Government Railways rapidly expanded and the gauge became the standard for southern Africa. [10][11] 

In 1876, Natal also converted its short 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) long Durban network from 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge prior to commencing with construction of a network across the entire colony in 1876. [12] 

Other new railways in Southern Africa, notably Mozambique, Bechuanaland, the Rhodesias, Nyasaland and Angola, were also constructed in 3′ 6″ gauge during that time.After 1876In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century numerous 3′ 6″ gauge tram systems were built in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

The precise reason why a track gauge of 3′ 6″ in (1,067 mm) (also known as “Cape gauge”) came to be selected as the early standard gauge in Japan remains uncertain. It could be because 3’6″ was supposedly cheaper to build than the international standard “Stephenson gauge” of 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm), or because the first British agent, whose contract was later cancelled, ordered iron sleepers made for the narrower gauge. It seems most likely, however, that Morel’s previous experience building Cape gauge railways in similar New Zealand terrain was a significant influence, and Cape gauge became the de facto standard.

As a further commentary on the 3′ 6″ gauge, readers might want to consult Japan Railway and Transport Review which carried an article about the 3′ 6″ gauge in 2002. [36]

Japan’s Shinkansen lines are all built to Standard Gauge, because trains are more stable, and can go faster, on wider track. Some other lines in Japan use 1,372 mm (4′ 6″), 762 mm (30″) gauge or 610 mm (24″) gauge. But the majority, over 83% in terms of distance, of Japan’s railways are built to Cape Gauge, 1,067 mm (3′ 6″). The name comes from its adoption in 1873 by the Cape Colony (later part of the Union of South Africa). But by then it had been around for nearly a century, originally for horse-drawn railways in England and Wales, and later steam railways around the world, including Australia, Canada and other locations. And, as of 1872, Japan, where it is known as KyOki (OM, literally “narrow path” or “narrow track”). But compared to Standard Gauge, it’s never been all that heavily used outside of Japan. [2]

Currently there are 5 track gauges in common use in Japan. The most common gauge is 1067mm/3′ 6″, which forms the bulk of the JR Group network and connecting private railways. The others, already referred to above, were very kindly listed by Mark Newton in response to a query from me on the website http://www.jnsforum.com. [3] His notes are in italics below. There is also an article in the archives of the magazine, Japan Railway & Transport Review from January 1997 which reflects on the activities of railway companies in the private sector [37]:

610mm – Tateyama Sabo railway (shown adjacent) in Toyama prefecture. [21] I think this would be the last non-museum/preserved line using 610mm gauge, which was once common for local and industrial railway operations, known as “keiben“, [22] throughout Japan.

762mm – the three former Kintetsu lines [18] … and the Kurobe Gorge railway (shown adjacent). [19] This gauge was also once very commonly used by keibenlines throughout Japan, but in many cases the lines were converted to 1067mm gauge and electrified as traffic increased, such as Kintetsu’s Yunoyama line. The famous Kiso Forest Railway was 762mm gauge. [20]

1067mm – JR Hokkaido, JR East, JR Tokai, JR West, JR Shikoku, JR Kyushu, all JR Freight operations on these lines, and many private railways and tramway, big and small. The reasons for choosing 3’6″ gauge for the original Tokyo-Yokohama line in 1872 are not apparent these days, but that choice greatly influenced subsequent government and private railway construction.

1372mm – Toei Shinjuku line, [29] Tokyu Setagaya line, [30] Toden Arakawa line, [31] Keio Teito Corporation lines, [32] and the Hakodate city tramway. [33] The once-huge Tokyo municipal tramway system was built to this gauge, plus some private railways and tramway in the Tokyo area. Some of these lines have been re-gauged twice, going from 1067mm to 1372mm, then 1372mm to 1435mm!Hakodate Haikara-gō is a vintage 1372mm gauage tramcar first operated in the city in 1918 and now restored for use on tourist runs in the summer, (c) 湯の川. [34]

1435mm – Shin Keisei railway, Hokuso Railway, Keihin Express Railway, Keisei Electric Railway, Eidan Ginza and Marunouchi lines, Toei Asakusa line, Yokohama metro, Hakone Tozan Railway, Nagoya metro, Kinki Nippon Railway/Kintetsu main lines, Keifuku Electric Railway, Eizan Electric Railway, Keihan Electric Railway, Kyoto metro, Osaka metro, Hankai Electric Tramway, Hankyu Electric Railway, Nose Electric Railway, Hanshin Electric Railway, Kobe metro, San-Yo Electric Railway, Hiroshima Electric Railway, Takamatsu-Kotohira Electric Railway, Chikuho Electric Railway, Nishi Nippon Railway main lines, Nagasaki Electric Tramway, Kumamoto city tramway, Kagoshima city tramway, and of course the JR Shinkansen network. So there’s more standard gauge trackage in Japan than you might think at first.

Historically there were a number of other gauges used. There were once a number of man-powered tramways, known as “jinsha kido”, some of which used 737mm gauge. Kaimaishi Iron Works and the Hankai Railway used 838mm. In northern Kyushu there were a number of local lines that used 914mm/3′ gauge. In total there have been 16 different track gauges used in Japan in the railway era. I’ve not gone into the various monorails and guideway lines there, as I’m not sure how you’d even measure their gauges! [3]

Edmund Morel (1840-1871) was a British civil engineer who was engaged in railway construction in many countries, including New Zealand, Australia, and Japan. He was the first foreign Engineer-in-Chief appointed by the Japanese government, for guiding and supervising railway construction.

A graduate of King’s College in London where he studied civil engineering, he was highly sought after to work with countries seeking to construct railroad systems, such as in New Zealand, Australia and North Borneo, which is now part of Malaysia.

Edmund Morel was clearly not one to shy away from a challenge. It was while he was working in North Borneo that he was asked to come to Japan by British envoy Sir Harry Parkes and help create Japan’s first railroad system. Edmund arrived in Japan on April 9, 1870. He had only 18 months to live. [13] On arriving at Yokohama, he at once proceeded to set out a line of railway between Tokei and Yokohama, 20 miles in length; the works on this, and on another length of 20 miles, between Kobe and Otaka, were commenced under him, but he did not live to see their completion. [14]

He assumed the role of Japan’s first chief engineer for railway and telegraph construction. His involvement in Japan was quite eclectic. Along with railway design he made proposals about the country’s education system and about engineering administration. It was as a result of his advice that Japan set up its Ministry of Public Works in December of 1870. It’s role was to find ways to bring in and utilize foreign technologies. [13]

The locomotives and rails for Morel’s railways were imported from England. Through discussions with senior government officials, Japan’s standard gauge of 1,067 mm (3′ 6″) was established. [15] Morel’s experiences in other countries predisposed him to the narrow gauge of 3′ 6″, in New Zealand contractors began laying track to the 5′ 3″ gauge from 1863 but all of it had been reduced to 3′ 6″ by 1870. Similarly, standard-gauge track laid in Indonesia from 1867 was gradually changed to 3′ 6″. (That gauge-change took time and was only completed during Japan’s wartime occupation.) [16]

As we have already noted, survey work for the 3′ 6″ line between Tokyo and Yokohama were begun in the spring of 1870 and the line was completed in May, 1872. The formal opening of the railway took place in the presence of the Emperor. “A general holiday,” says one account, “was declared for all government offices, and His Majesty the Emperor proceeded to the station dressed in ancient court costume, Naosbi, in a four-horse state carriage, accompanied by his suite in similar dress and wearing their swords.” [17]A Cape Gauge (3′ 6″) Express train ‘Niseko’ bound for Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan. An steam locomotive type C62 (C623) and five old type passenger cars. The C62 type locomotive was the biggest and largest steam locomotive for passenger train in Japan, (c) Neko Ja Neko Ja. [25]

“During the first year from May 7, 1872 to December 31, the railway carried 495,000 passengers, and about 500 tons of freight. In this period the operating income came to 174,930 yen and operating expenses amounted to 113,464 yen, producing a profit of 61,466 yen.” [17]

Other government sponsored lines were started after the opening of the first railroad. In December of 1873 work was begun on a 27-mile line between Kyoto and Osaka, and entwined in 1877. A short line between Osaka and Kobe was opened to traffic in 1874. Long range plans called for the laying of trunk lines, but owing to the shortage of funds and internal disturbances culminating in the Satsuma Rebellion, the government was unable to launch large scale railway projects in the early years. [17]

Hudson built for the Limited Expresses of the old Cape-gauge (3′ 6″) Tokaido line, class C62, Hiroshima 1966, (c) Dr. Stephan Stoeckl. [24]

 

 

Although the government didn’t nationalize the railways until 1906, it took a strong central role in standardization, and apparently chose to continue with the gauge it had started with, causing most later railways to be built to that gauge. Some private railways chose other gauges, including standard gauge, and in particular a number of small regional railways used and still use 762 mm (30”) gauge. But most were built to Cape Gauge. [2]

In subsequent years, particularly from 1909 to 1920, the Japanese would try, repeatedly, to switch to standard gauge out of a desire for higher speed, heavier tonnage, or simply for ease of purchasing equipment overseas. Several of these attempts were put off by the government on military grounds, as the existence of an odd gauge made use of railway lines by a potential invader more difficult. By 1927, the nationalized Japanese Government Railways operated 12,864 km (7,993 mi) of track and it would have been very expensive to convert. And by then, the technology was entirely locally-made, and imports were no longer a concern. A preserved Japanese 3′ 6″ gauge JNR Class D51 2-8-2 locomotive in main line service in 2014 (c) C.C. Lerk. [23]Cape Gauge (3′ 6″) EF62 1 at the Usui Pass Railway Heritage Park, April 2007, (c) RSA. This is a a Co′Co′ wheel arrangement DC electric locomotive type built between 1962 and 1969  [26]

It wasn’t until the first high speed Shinkansen line was built in the 1960’s that Japan would finally get a large-scale standard gauge line. [2]

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_ft_6_in_gauge_railways, accessed on 2nd January 2019.
  2. http://www.sumidacrossing.org/Prototype/StandardNarrowGauge, accessed on 4th January 2019.
  3. Mark Newton; http://www.jnsforum.com/community/topic/15147-understanding-japans-track-and-loading-gauges, accessed on 4th January 2019.
  4. https://archive.org/stream/railwaysornorai01fairgoog#page/n8/mode/2up, accessed on 2nd January 2019.
  5. Peter Semmens; High Speed in Japan: Shinkansen – The World’s Busiest High-speed Railway. Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing, 1997. p1.
  6. P.J.G. Ransom; Narrow Gauge Steam; Oxford Publishing Co., 1996, p107.
  7. I. L. Griffiths; Susan Rowland; (1994). The Atlas of African Affairs. Routledge, 1994, p168.
  8. John Bond; “Chapter 19, The Makers of Railways: John Molteno”. They were South Africans. Oxford University Press, 1956, p170.
  9. “Cultural, historical assessment of the Hex Pass Railway, Worcester to de Doorns”(PDF), accessed on 2nd January 2019.
  10. Jose Burman; Early Railways at the Cape, Cape Town: Human & Rousseau, 1984.
  11. D.E. Davenport; A Railway Sketch of South Africa. 1882. Cape Town.
  12. T.V. Bulpin; Natal and the Zulu Country (3rd ed.). Cape Town: T.V. Bulpin Publications Ltd., 1977. p224–227.
  13. https://wonderfulrife.blogspot.com/2013/10/gaijin-father-of-japans-railways.html?m=1, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  14. https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Edmund_Morel, accessed on 7th January 2019.
  15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Morel_(railway_engineer), accessed on 7th January 2019.
  16. Akira Saito; Why Did Japan Choose the 3’6″ Narrow Gauge?  Japan Railway & Transport Review No. 31 (p33–38); http://www.ejrcf.or.jp/jrtr/jrtr31/f33_sai.html, accessed on 7th January 2019.
  17. Nobutaka Ike; The Pattern of Railway Development in Japan; in The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2, February 1955; p222-223, sourced via https://www.jstor.org/stable/2941732?read-now=1&seq=6#page_scan_tab_contents, accessed on 8th January 2019.
  18. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yokkaichi_Asunarou_Railway_Utsube_Line, accessed on 8th January 2019; “The Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line (四日市あすなろう鉄道内部線 Yokkaichi Asunarō Tetsudō Utsube-sen) is a 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge railway line operated by the Japanese private railway company Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway, connecting Asunarou Yokkaichi Station and Utsube Station, both in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan.The line connects with the Kintetsu Nagoya Line and the Yunoyama Line at Asunarou Yokkaichi Station; these other lines use an elevated platform called Kintetsu Yokkaichi Station whereas the Utsube Line uses a low-level platform. At Hinaga Station, the line connects with the Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Hachiōji Line, a one-station branch line. Because all trains on the Hachiōji Line offer direct service to Asunarou Yokkaichi via the Utsube Line, the two lines are collectively called the Utsube-Hachiōji Line (内部・八王子線 Utsube-Hachiōji-sen). … Until March 2015, the line was under control of Kintetsu, a major railway company.”
  19. http://www.kurotetu.co.jp/en/railway, accessed on 8th January 2019 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurobe_Gorge_Railway, accessed on 8th January 2019: “The Kurobe Gorge Railway (黒部峡谷鉄道株式会社 Kurobe Kyōkoku Tetsudō Kabushiki Kaisha), or Kurotetsu (黒鉄) for short, is a private, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge railway company operating the Kurobe Gorge Main Line along the Kurobe River in the Kurobe gorge area of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. The railway was built to serve the construction of the Kurobe dam for the Kansai Electric Power Company, which was completed in 1963; Kurotetsu was spun off from the power company in June 1971, but remains a wholly owned subsidiary. At its terminus, the Main Line links to Kurobe Senyō Railway, which is not open to general public. … In 2008 the company operated 27 locomotives, 138 passenger carriages and 322 freight wagons.
  20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiso_Forest_Railway, accessed on 8th January 2019: “The Kiso Forest Railway (木曽森林鉄道 Kiso-shinrin-tetsudō) was a network of 400 km of 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge light (keiben (軽便)) railway lines that operated in the Kiso Valley in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. … The railway was used to support the logging of cedar forests in the region. The Kiso Forest had historically been the possession of a local lord, but at the time of the Meiji Restoration had become the property of the Imperial family. In 1901, a railway was laid into the forests and was initially worked by hand or animals. The first 0-4-2T locomotives built by Baldwin Locomotive Works were introduced in 1907. Further locomotives were obtained from Baldwin, as well as a Shay locomotive that was transferred to the Alishan Forest Railway in Taiwan when that line opened. The railway was extensively rebuilt in 1920, with steel bridges and 24 tunnels. … The railway was abolished in stages between 1966 and 1976.
  21. http://www.hrr.mlit.go.jp/tateyama/english/service/history.html, accessed on 8th Januaty 2019: “Tateyama Sabo’s service railway opened in 1926, and in 1929 11.7 km of track from Senjugahara to Kanbadaira went into operation. In 1965 the 18 km of railway to Mizutanidaira were completed. This section includes an 18-lebel switchback. At first the point switches were manually controlled, but between 1980 and 1986 they became entirely automated. However, for the sake of safety, an assistant driver checks that everything is running smoothly. The train has changed with the times up to the present day. This train, still today active in erosion control work, is one of the symbols of Tateyama Sabo.”
  22. Dan Free; Early Japanese Railways 1853-1914: Engineering Triumphs That Transformed Meiji-Era Japan; sourced via https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=MwbQAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT586&lpg=PT586&dq=Keiben+Railways+Japan&source=bl&ots=vp0hACPS5X&sig=CV5WU8ubrKhWLp3NAlgPuYyo454&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiagIjig97fAhXTtXEKHTLhCv8Q6AEwC3oECAIQAQ#v=onepage&q=Keiben%20Railways%20Japan&f=false, accessed on 8th January 2019: “By 1910, when the desire to construct more railways [in Japan] was close to its peak, the cost of developing a railway to main line standards was likewise becoming more costly. As the framework of a national railway system was well underway, with most of the major trunk lines built and the few still needed under construction, most of the new lines projected were short local lines with modest traffic potential. In order to stimulate such lines, the government passed a Light Railway Law, which brought many keiben tetsud “light railways” into being. Within three years, the effect was notable. By 1913 the number of keiben tetsud had greatly increased, thanks to the simplified organizational procedures authorized by the new law and other governmental encouragements. As of that year, there were 38 keiben tetsud with 574 route miles in operation, an additional 44 with a route mileage of 800 miles under construction, and some 126 companies with a combined mileage of 1,953 miles which had received a preliminary charter, but which had not commenced construction. The law would be augmented in 1924 with the addition of a Tramway Law. In all, by the close of the Meiji period, there were approximately 208 such keiben tetsud contemplated to add some 3,328 route miles to the Japanese railway system. Many of the keiben tetsud were short, local affairs that acted as branch line extensions from the “main-line” grade shitetsu or IJGR, meandering along old cart tracts or the banks of local streams to bring rail transportation to small towns, remote locations, and otherwise un-served villages and hamlets of the hinterlands. They were often times on the shakiest of financial grounds, operating as it were “on a shoe-string” with second-hand, obsolete equipment purchased used from their more established “main-line” brethren if they happened to be of a matching gauge. Thus they often retained a quaint, nostalgic flavor, often all the more charming due to the hodgepodge of dated and mismatched equipment with which they were furnished.
  23. By LERK, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=32955115
  24. https://www.trains-worldexpresses.com/500/519.htm, accessed om 8th January 2019.
  25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JNR_Class_C62#/media/File:C623_Express_Niseko.JPG, accessed on 8th January 2019.
  26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JNR_Class_EF62, accessed on 8th January 2019.
  27. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JNR_Class_C10, accessed on 8th January 2019. NB: I have been informed that the note provided with this photograph is slightly misleading. The loco was built by Kawasaki. Kisha Seizo was a separate manufacturer.
  28. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JNR_Class_C11, accessed on 8th January 2019. NB: Again the note provided with this photograph is slightly misleading. The loco C11 207 was built by Hitachi in 1941.
  29. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toei_Shinjuku_Line, accessed on 8th January 2019.
  30. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C5%8Dky%C5%AB_Setagaya_Line, accessed on 9th January 2019.
  31. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toden_Arakawa_Line, accessed on 9th January 2019.
  32. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keio_Corporation, accessed on 9th January 2019.
  33. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hakodate_Transportation_Bureau, accessed on 9th January 2019.
  34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hakodate_Transportation_Bureau#/media/File:Hakodateshiden30kei.JPG, accessed on 9th January 2019.
  35. Roar Stenersen; Development of Norwegian Railways, 1854-2002; Japan Railway and Transport TReview, June 2002, Volume No. 31, p39-41; http://www.ejrcf.or.jp/jrtr/jrtr31/pdf/f39_ste.pdf
  36. Akira Sato; Why did Japan Choose the 3′ 6″ Narrow Gauge; Japan Railway and Transport Review, June 2002, Volume No. 31, p33-38; http://www.ejrcf.or.jp/jrtr/jrtr31/pdf/f33_sai.pdf, accessed on 17th February 2019
  37. Takahiko Saito; Japanese Private Railway Companies and Their Business Diversification;  Japan Railway and Transport Review, January 1997, Volume No. 10, p2-9;  http://www.ejrcf.or.jp/jrtr/jrtr10/pdf/f02_sai.pdf, accessed on 17th February 2019.

 

The Ballachulish Railway Line – Part 3

Part 3 of our study of the Ballachulish line will include material from ‘The Railway Magazine’, some present day pictures from along the National Cycleway which follows the line together with parts of a description of that journey from another website, the completion of the journey along the line from Kentallen to Ballachulish Station, and a study of the slate mining at Ballachuish which probably was the main justification for the construction of the branch-line.

The Railway Magazine November 1950

My spare time over Christmas 2018 has been spent looking at a few older magazines which have been waiting my attention for some time. I have discovered this article in “The Railway Magazine” and thought that it might be of interest. The full article and associated pictures appear below:

Kentallen to Ballachuish

Next, we finish our journey along the line from Kentallen to Ballachuish ……

Initially we continue our look around the station at Kentallen.This image provides an overview of the station site. The footbridge, station buildings, signal box and water tank are all visible as well as the siding on the northeast corner of the site. [8]Ex-Caledonian Railway ‘439’ Class (LMSR Class 2P) 0-4-4T 55230 enters Kentallen Station from the South during July 1959 with an Oban – Ballachulish train. [9]

The following images were all taken in the mid-1970s by J.R. Hume, after closure of the railway but before re-development. A Mk 3 Cortina is visible in two images which for the officionados may well date the pictures more definitively. They are all available on the Canmore website. [8]The station from the road-side. [8]The railway cottages and water tank on the southeast side of the A828. [8]The station buildings from the Northeast. [8]The waiting shelter on the west side of the station with Loch Linnhe behind. [8]Unidentified ex-Caledonian Railway (LMSR Class 2P) 0-4-4T, the morning Ballachulish to Oban train crosses a Ballachulish-bound train at Kentallen Station during July 1959, (c) Kelvin Hertz. [11]The water tank at Kentallen, still standing in May 2015. [10]

 

 

 

The water tank in 2014. [13]

Moving on from Kentallen, the next two images are taken just to the north-east of the station.Local passenger train approaching Kentallen in 1961 from Ballachulish, (c) H.B. Priestly. [7]Local pick-up goods approaching Kentallen from Ballachulish in the mid-1960s . [6]

The next station along the line was Ballachulish Ferry, it was reached after a the line had travelled East along the south side of Loch Leven. Close to Ballachulish Pier the A828 crossed the railway on a bridge and then hugged the shoreline as far as the ferry and the hotel.In 2014, we stayed in a bed and breakfast  along this length of the A828 and walked a distance along the track-bed on the old railway line. These next few images show the B&B and the cycleway/path. As you will see below the cycleway/path is marked characteristically along its full length by ornate ironwork.Part 1 of this short series of posts carried a video of the ferry. Please follow this link:

https://rogerfarnworth.com/2019/01/01/the-ballachulish-railway-line-part-1

Some pictures will suffice here, three images in total, of which the third shows the Ballachulish Bridge under construction.Ballachulish Ferry, before the bridge was started. Looking from the north side, towards Sgorr Dhonuill, © Copyright Ian Taylor. [14] Argyll postcard of Ballachulish Ferry. [15]

Ballachulish Ferry and Bridge, © Copyright N T Stobbs. [16]

 

 

 

Finally at this location, Ballachulish Hotel and Ferry Slipway [17]

Ballachulish Ferry Railway Station is hidden away inland south of the ferry behind the hotel. It had one platform on the North side of the railway line.Ballachulish Ferry Railway Station, looking towards the terminus at Ballachulish.[18]Ballachulish Ferry Railway Station facing West, (c) H.B. Priestley. [19]

The railway continues in an easterly direction towards Ballachulish Station, crossing the A828 and running along the shore. Close to Ballachulish, the A828 turns inland to find a good bridging point across the River Laroch. The railway continued along the shore on embankment so as to have the most convenient approach to Ballachulish.The station opened as Ballachulish on 20 August 1903 [2] with two platforms. There was a goods yard on the north side of the station. [1] Within two years it was renamed as Ballachulish & Glencoe [2] and renamed again following the opening of the ‘new’ road between Glencoe village and Kinlochleven in 1908 as Ballachulish (Glencoe) for Kinlochleven. Apart for a short closure in 1953, this latter name remained until closure in 1966. [2] In the railway timetables the name was shortened to simply Ballachulish with a note stating “Ballachulish is the Station for Glencoe and Kinlochleven”. [3]

The Callander and Oban Railway were responsible for the construction of the branch-line and for the opening of the station. That company was absorbed into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway during the Grouping of 1923. The station then passed to the Scottish Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948, and was closed by the British Railways Board in 1966 [2] when the entire length of the Ballachulish Branch closed.

In the early 1990s the station buildings were converted into a medical centre. Houses have been built in the station yard. The engine shed remained, being used by a local garage until 2015, when it was demolished to make way for more private housing.
Ballachulish Railway Station. [1]A close up of the station buildings. [20]Ballachulish Station in the 1950s, (c) Marcel Gommers. A google search produced this picture, but the link failed to operate and the website appears not to exist.An eye-level view into the station from West along the line. [20]Ballachulish Engine Shed, used as a garage for sometime before its demolition recently. [20]

The adjacent picture shows the shed acting as a local garage in 2012. [21]A track plan of the station. [20]The three pictures above show the old station building in use as a medical centre in 2011, (c) J.M. Briscoe. [22]

We have travelled the full length of the branch-line and done our best to get an impression of it operating as a railway. As we have done so, we have noted on a few occasions that the railway line is now in use as part of the National Cycle Network Route 78.

National Cycle Network Route No. 78

We have already seen some of the ornate ironwork which has been used to give this particular part of Route 78 an identity. These next few images highlight other locations along the route where the ironwork has been used.The cycle-way which follows much of the branch-line is marked by ornate ‘gateways’ and sculpture work as in this image and that below. Details of the cycle-way (Sustrans No. 78) can be found at the end of this post. [5]The National Cycle Network gateway close to Kentallen. [12]Similar ironwork closer to Oban. [23]

The description of the cycle route on the Sustrans website, which is an excellent way of following the route of the branch-line, follows in italics [4]:

Connel Bridge to Benderloch – two miles

Follow the Route 78 signs over the bridge and then through housing and past Connel Airfield. There is a currently a short gap in National Route 78 here. It is possible to join the main trunk road for just under a mile – but please note that this is narrow high-speed road, and it is not recommended for children or inexperienced cyclists. A footpath heads off to the left through the trees before you reach the trunk road, but in addition to being a bit muddy and overgrown this is not part of the National Cycle Network route. This joins with the beginning of the tarmac path to the south of Benderloch. This area (but not the additional path) is shown in this map link.

Benderloch to the Sea Life Sanctuary – four miles

A traffic-free path follows the line of the old railway into Benderloch village. From near the primary school, it runs alongside the A828 trunk road to the Sea Life Sanctuary, which has interesting marine displays, other wildlife such as otters, a nature trail and an adventure play area, plus a cafe.  

Sea Life Sanctuary to Appin and Dalnatrat (the Highland boundary) – 13 miles

This is a glorious, almost entirely traffic-free section that starts from the east side of the Sea Life Sanctuary car park. There are several crossings of the trunk road on this section, where you should exercise care. The route runs through woodland and then joins minor roads through the settlement of Barcaldine and the forest of Sutherland’s Grove, and along railway path to above Creagan road bridge. Here you will see signs for the Loch Creran Loop, a six mile route on quiet road. Route 78 continues over the bridge. A traffic-free path runs alongside the road to Inverfolla and then the route rejoins the line of the old railway past Appin and Castle Stalker. Look out for the signs for the Port Appin Loop, which takes you down to Port Appin where you can catch the passenger ferry to the Isle of Lismore. After passing Castle Stalker, there’s a bit under a mile where the route shares a quiet access road with road traffic and skirts a layby, followed by more traffic-free path and less than a mile on very quiet minor road. A further two miles of entirely traffic-free path ends at Dalnatrat, near the foot of Salachan Glen.

Dalnatrat to Duror – two miles

Between Dalnatrat and Duror is currently a gap of almost two miles in the National Route 78. It has not yet been possible to build a path here and to continue a northbound journey temporarily using the busy trunk road is unavoidable. Please note that this is narrow high-speed road, and it is not recommended for children or inexperienced cyclists, or those on foot. Look out for the cycle route signs to the right as you enter Duror village to take you back onto the National Cycle Network.

This area is shown here on Sustran’s mapping.  There are some rough paths and tracks in nearby woodland to the southeast of the road – but these are not part of the National Cycle Network, they don’t bridge the gap entirely, and the loose surfaces and steep inclines make them relatively challenging even if on an unladen mountain bike or on foot. Please note that current Google based mapping shows a bridge which no longer exists. Openstreetmap currently (Sept 2017) shows the correct details.

Duror to Ballachullish – six miles

Traffic-free path runs from the south of Duror village and loops round on minor road to rejoin the line of the old railway. The path over the hill to Kentallen takes you to the highest point on the route where you get a seat and a wonderful view over Loch Linnhe. The path then heads down to Kentallen, across the road and onto one of the most scenic sections as the railway path hugs the coastline for a couple of miles, before heading inland and emerging just to the south of Ballachulish Bridge. At this junction, you can continue right for another three miles on a traffic-free link path to the village of Glencoe, or turn left to continue on Route 78 over Ballachulish Bridge to North Ballachulish.

Ballachulish Quarries

Ballachulish Slate Quarries before the arrival of the Railway (1897 OS Map).

Just to the south of the A82 and at the east end of the village of Ballachulish are the fascinating  remains of the Ballachulish slate quarries, which employed up to 300 men at any given time for over two and a half centuries until 1955. Today the quarries have been opened up as a scenic attraction in their own right, and are well worth a visit. [24]

The story of slate quarrying in what was originally known as East Laroch began in 1693, just the year after the Glen Coe massacre took place, a little over a mile and a half to the east. The quarries grew dramatically during the 1700s and slate from here was shipped out to provide roofing for Scotland’s rapidly growing cities. It is recorded that in one year alone, 1845, some 26 million Ballachulish slates were produced.

The arrival of a branch railway from Oban in 1903 gave the quarries a further boost, as it made overland transport of the slates both possible and cheap. The Railway’s arrival was, however, unfortunate timing in one sense, as a major industrial dispute was under way in the quarries at the time over the provision of medical care, which involved the workforce being locked out for a year. Further trouble flared up in 1905, but the quarries remained in business until finally closing in 1955.

Ballachulish slate had one major drawback compared with some of its competitors. The presence of iron pyrite crystals within the slate meant that rust spots and holes were prone to appear in slates exposed to the weather, which of course is a drawback on a roof. Because of this, only about a quarter of the slate actually extracted could be used for roofing, with the remainder finding less lucrative uses or being wasted.

The adjacent images come from the Undiscovered Scotland Website as does the text above, although it has been edited slightly. [24]

Some further images of the quarries have been provided below. They have been sourced from the Canmore Website. [25] Canmore contains more than 320,000 records and 1.3 million catalogue entries for archaeological sites, buildings, industry and maritime heritage across Scotland. Compiled and managed by Historic Environment Scotland, It also contains information and collections from all its survey and recording work, as well as from a wide range of other organisations, communities and individuals who are helping to enhance this national resource. The old road used to pass under the incline. [25] An aerial image of the quarries. The route of the railway line is clearly visible. [25]The quarrying operation was of a significant size and lasted for well over two centuries employing around 300 men. [25]

And finally … a video of travel along the branch-line in the 1960s.

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballachulish_railway_station, accessed on 1st January 2019
  2. R. V. J. Butt; The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1995, p23.
  3. Table 33, British Railways, Passenger Services Scotland summer 1962, quoted in https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballachulish_railway_station, accessed on 1st January 2019.
  4. https://www.sustrans.org.uk/ncn/map/route/oban-to-fort-william, accessed on 3rd January 2019.
  5. https://cuilbay.com/2014/07, accessed on 1st January 2019.
  6. https://hollytreehotel.co.uk/facilities/history, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  7. https://www.highlandtitles.com/blog/highland-reserve-interviews-lord-douglas-lady-penelope, accessed on 4th January 2019.
  8. https://canmore.org.uk/site/107540/kentallen-station?display=image, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  9. https://www.pinterest.co.uk/amp/pin/382031980881862868, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  10. https://wildaboutscotland.com/2015/05/28/lejog-day-11-connel-to-fort-augustus/amp, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  11. https://www.pinterest.nz/pin/382031980881872965/?lp=true, accessed on 4th January 2019.
  12. http://www.scottishanchorages.co.uk/kentallen-bay/4532986587, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  13. http://www.boydharris.co.uk/w_bh14/140818.htm, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  14. http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/362353, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  15. https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/BALLACHULISH-FERRY-Argyll-postcard-C31111-/253269532962, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  16. https://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/753925, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  17. https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/ballachulish/ballachulish/index.html, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  18. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballachulish_Ferry_railway_station, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  19. http://myrailwaystation.com/FORMER%20LOCATIONS/index.htm, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  20. http://www.rmweb.co.uk/community/index.php?/topic/122717-kentra-bay-a-what-might-have-been-caley-west-coast-terminus, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  21. http://www.petesy.co.uk/2012/09/28, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  22. https://her.highland.gov.uk/Monument/MHG346, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  23. https://www.glencoescotland.com/see-do/mountain-biking/sustrans-to-oban, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  24. https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/ballachulish/slatequarries/index.html, accessed on 5th January 2019.
  25. https://canmore.org.uk/site/23552/ballachulish-slate-quarries, accessed on 5th January 2019.